View of the bridge from the Vorobevskaya embankment. 2014 Photo: Mikhail Arkhipov
Luzhnikovsky metro bridgealso called Luzhniki bridge - This is a two-tier arch bridge made of reinforced concrete across the Moscow River, connecting Luzhniki and Vorobyovy Gory in the south-west of Moscow, in the Vorobyevskaya and Luzhnetskaya embankments. Motor transport passes along the upper tier of the bridge, the Sokolnicheskaya metro line on the lower tier, and the Vorobyovy Gory station on the metro bridge.
The bridge is located on 170 km of the Moscow River (20.95 km of the USS). According to the three-span design, its feature is that it is located at an angle to the passage. Shipping span - medium. The span width is 100 meters, the width of the passage in the passage is 63 meters, the height of the passage within the passage is 10 meters from the NPU. The total length of the bridge is 2 km (2030 meters), and the width is 25.8 meters.
In addition to the Luzhnikovsky metro bridge in the Moscow metro, there are three more similar structures passing over the Moscow River: the Smolensky metro bridge on the Filevskaya line, the Nagatinsky metro bridge on the Zamoskvoretskaya line, and the Mitinsky metro bridge on the Arbat-Pokrovskaya metro line.
Initially, the bridge was planned as a road, but due to a change in the Sokolniki metro line tracing in the section from Sportivnaya station to Universitet station, the bridge was redesigned as a two-tier, combined with the metro line. The Luzhnikovsky metro bridge was built in record time by the project of engineers V. G. Andreev, N. N. Rudomazin and architects K. N. Yakovlev and A. I. Susorov. The road part of the bridge was commissioned by November 7, 1958, and the Leninsky Gory metro station (now Vorobyovy Gory) was opened on January 12, 1959. In the future, this decision became the first link in a series of events that brought the bridge to an emergency state in just 20 years. The second critical event that affected the life of the bridge was the technology of laying concrete in the winter, because of which reinforced concrete structures began to quickly collapse, losing their bearing capacity. The result was that already in June 1960 the first serious emergency occurred: the ceiling of the Leninsky Gory station began to collapse. Later, longitudinal cracks began to appear in concrete floors, which led to the final closure of the station first (it was closed on October 20, 1983), and then the bridge itself - automobile traffic on it was closed in 1999, after commissioning the Berezhkovsky bridge, located on the highway of the third transport ring. In 1999-2002, a complete replacement of the structures of the Luzhnikovsky metro bridge was carried out - in fact, it was gradually built up again, since in the current state it could not be repaired and operated. The automobile (upper) tier of the bridge was opened for transport in July 2000. And the metro station Vorobevy Gory (formerly Leninsky Gory) was opened on December 14, 2002.
View of the bridge from the observation deck on the Sparrow Hills. The upper tier is Komsomolsky Prospect, below is the Vorobevy Gory metro station. 2018 Photo: Mikhail Arkhipov
View of the bridge from the river. 2018 Photo: Mikhail Arkhipov
View of the bridge from the Luzhnetskaya embankment. Station "Sparrow Hills". 2013 Photo: Mikhail Arkhipov
Station "Sparrow Hills". 2017 Photo: Mikhail Arkhipov
View of the upper automobile layer of the Luzhnikovsky bridge from Kosygin street. 2018 Photo: Mikhail Arkhipov
View of the bridge from St. Andrew's Embankment. 2018 Photo: Mikhail Arkhipov
Bridges on the Moscow River (location downstream, within the shipping zone):
In the 1930s, the idea of a highway coming from the Palace of Soviets under construction to the south-west of Moscow appeared, which, according to the Master Plan for the reconstruction of Moscow in 1935, became the main direction of the city's development. An option was adopted for implementation, according to which two beams came from the area of the Palace of Soviets symmetrically relative to the bend of the Luzhniki Stadium, through which they were supposed to pass to the Moscow River.
Several workshops of the Moscow City Council were involved in the development of the planning of new areas. A particular difficulty in the design was the fact that there was a large difference in elevation between the low Luzhniki on the left bank of the river and the Sparrow Hills on the right. The architect D.F. Fridman proposed to actually cut the Sparrow Hills to a considerable extent to eliminate this difference. The architect K. S. Melnikov proposed to solve the entrance to the bridge in the form of spiral ramps.
The design of the highway, known as Komsomolsky Prospekt, continued after the end of World War II, when the MSU complex was built in the mid-1950s and the residential South-West region began to form. The problem with the elevation was solved by punching in the depths of the Sparrow Hills.
The first draft of the steel metro bridge, prepared by G. D. Popov, was rejected in favor of reinforced concrete technology. The authors of the completed project are V. G. Andreev, N. N. Rudomazin (engineers), K. N. Yakovlev, A. I. Susorov, N. I. Demchinsky and others. The bridge was built by “Bridge Detachment No. 4” in record short terms - 19 months.
The metro bridge became the first bunker bridge in Moscow, in the lower tier of which is the Leninsky Gory metro station - the longest in the Moscow metro (272 m). The axis of the bridge crosses the channel of the Moscow river at an angle of 52 ° 30 ′. Three flights (45.0 + 108.0 + 45.0 m) carried the station hall itself and the upper, road level 25.8 m wide from precast concrete.
Photo and description
The Luzhnetsk metro bridge was the first bunk bridge in Moscow, but it was actually built only on the second attempt. The first building was erected in the late 50s of the last century, but serious hidden shortcomings of its design quickly revealed. For example, in the first year of operation, the lobby of the Leninsky Gory metro station, located in the lower tier of the bridge, was flooded during heavy rains. Four years later, in 1963, after the inspection, the condition of the bridge was assessed as pre-emergency. In 1983, the station was closed for passengers to enter and exit, but train traffic did not stop. Perhaps the cause of the identified problems was excessive haste in the construction of the bridge - it was built in just 19 months.
At the end of the last century and in the first years of the present, a large-scale reconstruction of the bridge was carried out, during which the upper automobile tier was completely rebuilt. The movement of cars was reopened in 2000. Since the 80s, the movement of trains has been carried out along temporary routes (for this purpose additional galleries were built, during the passage of which the trains should have reduced speed). In 2002, the movement of metro trains was returned to the main ways of the bridge. In the same year, the station was opened, only under the current name "Sparrow Hills".
Today, this metro bridge connects the Luzhniki and Vorobyovy Gory. Its total length exceeds two kilometers. The length of its two spans is 45 meters, another one is 108 meters. The width of the bridge is almost 29 meters. The Vorobevy Gory station is the longest of the Moscow metro stations; its length is 270 meters. Sometimes the Luzhnetsk metro bridge is also called the Luzhnikovsky metro bridge.
Having existed for less than half a century, the old bridge has not only suffered significant wear and tear, but has ceased to meet the modern realities of carrying capacity and the flow of railway transport. It was decided to reconstruct it by replacing the old span with a completely new one, but preserving the appearance of the old bridge as much as possible. In 2000, reconstruction work was completed. So the New Krasnoluzhsky bridge appeared, which after a couple of years was again renamed to Luzhnetsk.
The modern building today is a span channel lattice structure made of high-strength steel, to which beam spans adjoin. It is on these spans that automobile and pedestrian traffic is carried out.
The structures of the old historic bridge were moved upstream of the Moscow River using barges. They were used to build a new pedestrian bridge, but that's another story (the Bohdan Khmelnitsky bridge).